A Phased Guide for Fresher Graduates and Professionals to Excel in the Field Of Occupational Safety.

To brief about what occupational safety is, it is all about saving the workforce from getting injured or life-threatening injuries and help the labor force understand hazards involved in different types of field works in the construction industry. Also, apart from that, different tasks included maintenance of a clear record of guests and accompanying them until they leave the site safely by providing them with respective P.P.E.

Mainly it includes the provision of Personal Protective Equipment’s(P.P.E) to working laborers accordingly to relevant to the type of work, periodic health surveillance by using advanced types of equipment for workers exposed to high-risk hazards, maintenance of inspection and investigation reports.

The NEBOSH International General Certificate (IGC) Health-associated Safety is an internationally recognized qualification that will give you a broad understanding of key health and issues of safety. The IGC is NEBOSH’s preferred qualification worldwide and is progressively asked for amongst employers worldwide

Different Courses And Certifications include:

  • Diploma in HSE
  • IOSH
  • OSHA
  • NEBOSH IGC

Courses Overview

For Freshers:

  • Diploma Course In Health Safety and Environment.
  • Fire & Safety Engineering.
  • Oil  & Gas Safety.
  • IOSH Managing Safely.

For Experienced:

  • NEBOSH IGC Diploma.
  • Lifting And Rigging Safety.
  • Scaffolding Inspector.

And there are Other different courses that you will be trained on depending on requirements of the company at their expense.

Courses To Start With For Fresher Graduates:

  • Diploma Course In Health Safety and Environment.
  • Fire & Safety Engineering.
  • Oil  & Gas Safety.
  • IOSH Managing Safely.

Diploma Course In Health Safety and Environment Includes:

    • Introduction to Health and Safety.
    • Duties Of a Safety Officer.
    • Hazard Identification .
    • Job Safety Analysis & Risk Assessment.
    • Introduction to Osha.
    • Excavation Safety.
    • Electrical Safety.
    • Confined Space Safety.
    • Fall Protection.
    • Misc. Topics

Fire & Safety Engineering Includes:

    • Classes Of  Fire.
    • Types Of Extinguishers.
    • How to use each type of extinguisher.
    • Methods Of Fire Extinction.
    • How to Quench all Classes of Fire.
    • Inspection & Fire Risk Assessment.
    • Storage, Handling, Transportation, PPE for different types of Highly Flammable Substances.

Oil & Gas Safety Includes:

    • Principles of Health and Safety.
    • Risk Management.
    • Hydrocarbon Process Safety
    • Fire Protection.
    • Emergency Response.
    • Chemical Handling and Storage.
    • Legal Requirements.
    • Logistics and Transport Operation.

IOSH Managing Safely Includes:

    • Assessing Risks.
    • Controlling Risks.
    • Understanding Responsibilities.
    • Investigating Incidents and Report updating.
    • Measuring Performance.

Courses For Experienced Professionals:

  • NEBOSH IGC Diploma.
  • Lifting And Rigging Safety.
  • Scaffolding Inspector.

 

NEBOSH IGC INCLUDES IG1 & IG2:

IG1:

  • Management Of International Health & Safety.
  • Controlling Work Place Hazards.

IG2:

  • Health & Safety Practical Application.
  • Preparation Of Practical Report.

Lifting & Rigging Safety Includes :

    • Sling Types.
    • Wire Rope Sling Selection.
    • Wire Rope Life.
    • Safe Lifting Practices.
    • Maintenance Of Ropes & Slings.
    • Rigging Loads.
    • Preparing Lift Plans.
    • Crane Configurations.
    • Periodic Inspection of Equipment.

Scaffolding Inspector Includes:

    • General Requirements.
    • Different types of Scaffolds.
    • Elevated Work Areas, Ladders, & Types of Scaffolds.
    • Scaffold Components.
    • Common Requirements to all types of Scaffolds.
    • Erection Standards & Dismantling.
    • International Standards & References.

Different Types Of Real Time WorkPlace Hazard Scenarios

The different type of work activities involved at construction site would involve unearthing, working at un usual heights, grinding and cutting of metals, carpentry work, working in dug out confined spaces for laying sewer pipe line, different type of hot work activities was found and workers were carrying out work day and night in different shifts of job rotation.

The primary objective of the review is to discover the dangers in the worksite and to give the fitting control measures to decrease the dangers and level of risk associated with injuries and their related hazard to the workers in the work environment.
The criteria which should be used as reference during the inspection are international standards, local legislative requirements.

The various types of hazards and risks identified have been listed out in the observations along with immediate and long-term control measures.

Few Examples Of Main Findings and Its Recommendations Are as Follows

Observation: physical Hazard

Workers were involved in laying of R.C.C slab at the worksite which was a typical construction activity and involved different type of machineries like cement concrete mixer, cement compactor, trucks unloading huge amounts of granite rocks, sand to carry out the construction activity and were producing high decibels of different types of irritative noises.

Prolonged exposure to such type of Noises may cause high levels of stress to the worker, distractions from work activity, loss of concentration, permanent or temporary loss of hearing, tinnitus.

Legal Breaches of International standards:

The Control of noise at work Regulations 2005 No.1643 > Regulation 4–
The exposure limit values are—a daily or weekly personal noise exposure of 87 dB (A-weighted); and
a peak sound pressure of 140 dB (C-weighted) to reduce exposure.

 The lower exposure action values are—
 Daily or weekly personal noise exposure of 80 dB (A-weighted); and a peak sound pressure of 135   dB (C-weighted)

The upper exposure action values are—
A daily or weekly personal noise exposure of 85 dB (A-weighted); and a peak sound pressure of 137 dB (C-weighted).
The employer must always ensure that equipment’s used at the work site should induce less level of noise.
Necessary actions like maintenance machines to induce less noise and provision of PPE to reduce noise induced hazards must be ensured.

Recommendation: 

It should be ensured that workers must and should use the ear muffs. Job shift rotations must be done to reduce the exposure of noise to the workers. The equipment’s which produce low levels of noise should be used and the workers should be insured to follow the safe work practices to carry out the work activity. the maintenance of the machinery should be done at regular intervals of time.

Persuasiveness: 

High levels of loud sounds can induce vexatious, irritation and tension to worker. It decreases the proficiency of the worker as it can make temporary or permanent hearing loss, the work activity be halted temporarily if there is non-conformance to keep up the standard of noise at work until the Proposals are implied Which may lead to brief misfortune in the effectiveness of the organisation.

The costs adhered for above recommendations would be INR 28000/

Observation : Chemical Hazard.

Chemical substances like Sulfuric acid emanating fumes were found to be gathered in the work area which may cause breathing hazards to the labourer’s health.

Also, the exposure to asbestos containing materials and silicon in different materials like paints, cement, white lime sand is extremely dangerous to the workers in a long term. 

It was also observed that workers were not using the PPE relevant to the work activity being carried out due to lack of knowledge on hazardous nature of the substances.

Legal Breaches of International Standards:

Chemicals Act 2008 (No. 13 of 2008) and Chemicals (Amendment) Act 2010 (No 32 of 2010)

The main purpose of the 2008 and 2010 Acts is to facilitate the enforcement of certain EU Regulations concerning chemicals. These Regulations include the:

  • Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation (No. 1907/2006))
  • Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP) Regulation (No. 1272/2008)

The exposure of the chemicals to the workers must be reduced to minimize the intensity of risk to the workers along with provision of chemical suits, resistant gloves, high density filter on RPE to avoid breathing of fumes or chemical particles, directly ingesting and intensity of exposure. 

Recommendation: 

The concerned team in the organization should always make sure that the workers are using relevant personal protective or respiratory protective equipment related to the work activity and also thorough knowledge should be given to the workers on the hazards and consequences and risks associated with substances and their hazardous nature if they come into direct contact with it.

The vessels containing hazardous substances must be labelled with warning signs and the act of using un named vessels for storing chemicals must be halted and there should separately assigned territory for storage of chemical substances with lock and key is to be furnished with ventilation systems is prescribed.

Persuasiveness: Direct contact for prolonged periods can cause adverse health effects which results in incurring of payments for rehabilitation of worker and production is also lost due to sickness of workers. Lack of trust in management by workers will be observed sue to improper caring done by employer there by spoiling industrial relationships between workers and higher managements which might lead to strikes.

The costs adhered for above recommendations would be INR 70000/-

Observation : Electrical Hazard.

At the workplace a steel structure was being erected using MEWP (Mobile Elevated Work Platform) and the MEWP was guiding nearby to the overhead power lines any minute contact with the overhead power lines may lead to high intensity of electric shock to the worker which may cause high degree of burns and loss of life could be incurred. And if the mobile elevated work platform gets stuck into the overhead power lines it may energize ground the area around it which may cause the spreading of electrical energy through the ground up to a certain extent of work area where workers might be working. If the other workers are not aware of the incident and walk through the energized ground area, they are also prone to high risk of electrical shock.

Legal Breaches of International Standard:

Under section 37 of the Indian Electricity Act,1910(9 of 1910), the Central Electricity Board Says:

  • Where an overhead line crosses or is in proximity guarding arrangements shall be provided so as to guard against the possibility of their coming into contact with each other.
  • “Electric supply-line” means a wire, conductor or other means used for conveying, transmitting or distributing energy (whether by overhead line or underground cable), together with any casing, coating, covering, tube, pipe or insulator enclosing.

The electricity at work regulations 1989 No.6355>PARTII>Regulation 14 says:

No person shall be engaged in any work activity on or so near any live conductor (other than one suitably covered with insulating material so as to prevent danger) that danger may arise unless– 

(a)it is unreasonable in all the circumstances for it to be dead; and

(b)it is reasonable in all the circumstances for him to be at work on or near it while it is live; and

(c)suitable precautions (including where necessary the provision of suitable protective equipment) are taken to prevent injury.

High quality and standard cables must be provided to withhold high temperatures.
Proper insulation between worker and absorbent PPE must be done.

Recommendations: 

The concerned team in the organization should either isolate or completely de-energize the power supply to the overhead power cables, there must be an insulation between the worker and the absorbent personal protective equipment, effective knowledge and instructions should be given to the workers on how electrical equipment’s work and dangers of arcing and dangers due to energizing of ground area.

There should be always a Competent Person who should be supervising that the energized equipment’s are used with complete safety procedure.

Persuasiveness: The recommended proposals are of very less price which drops risk of high voltage electric shock or death due to it. Any incident followed by an electrocution will affect the workers on humanitarian basis and also local government enforcement bodies can take action against the employer resulting in huge fines, court proceedings, increase in insurance premiums or jail term for the employer. 

The costs adhered for above recommendations would be INR 74000/-

Observation : Manual Handling Hazard.

Laborers were conveying common civil work with concrete, sand, granite rocks, gravel and brick blocks and were used and workers were manually handling the materials.

Due to manual handling there is odds of fall of materials on to limbs which can cause or scraping of an area on the body the dropped material can cause serious wounds and also there is danger of MSDs (Musculoskeletal Dis-orders) because of manual handling. Risks of falling also arises due to improper postures used to handle the material.

Legal Breaches of International standards:

Secretary of Labour’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754):

1926.958(b)(2)

set out a clear ranking of measures for dealing with risks from manual handling, these are:

  • first: avoid hazardous manual handling operations so far as is reasonably practicable;
  • second: assess any hazardous manual handling operations that cannot be avoided; and
  • third: reduce the risk of injury so far as is reasonably practicable.

Recommendation: 

The work activity must and ought to be halted right away. Giving adequate training on effective manual handling techniques to maintain a strategic distance from ergonomic risks. Proper way of utilizing of PPE (Personal protective equipment), for example, steel toed boots, elastic gloves, balaclava and so forth. Provision of mechanical or automated aids to reduce exposure of manual handling to the workers.

Persuasiveness: 

The Incrementation in MSDs can increase the rate of the absenteeism due to rehabilitation process and prompts decrement in quality of work which influences the speed or rate of the work. The association needs to spend for the restorative and recovery cost for the laborers which could be budgetary weight and there could be an expansion in protection premiums. Non-conformance of benchmarks can prompt authorization activities enforced from government bodies. 

The suggestion looks very exorbitant yet for long run it is fitting and increment the proficiency and bring greater profitability.

The assessed cost for the above sited recommendations would be around INR 40,000/-

Observation : Wobbly Ladders and Scaffoldings.

Most of the ladders used at different locations of the work site were unstable with missing treads and base of them were improper with no ladder hoops for some of them which may cause fall of person or material from height causing injury, fatality or damage to the equipment.

Breaches of International Standards:

The Working at Height Regulations 2005 (WAHR): To prevent death and injury triggered by a falling from un-usual heights. An employer must always govern working at un usual heights (for instance services managers or construction owners who may contract others to work at height) the Regulations apply to employer.

The health and safety at work etc. act 1974 – section 2(2) requires employers to provide safe access equipment and safe system of work where work at height is prolonged. 

According to ILO code of practice of 1992, (Scaffolds and ladders, 4.1.1),
Where work cannot safely be done on or from the ground or from part of a building or other permanent structure, a safe and suitable scaffold should be provided and maintained or other equally safe and suitable provision should be made.

Recommendations: The unsteady ladders used should be replaced right away with base stable legitimately. It should be tied at the top and the bottom with proper treads and is to be checked in case appropriately held or not. The ladder should be checked, maintained and is to be repaired on a regular basis.

And if the wear and tear is more due to continuous usage then it should be replaced right away with new ones in the place and old ones to be condemned.

Workers should be given knowledge on identifying the symptoms of accidents and train them to maintain a strategic distance from accidents avoiding fatalities.

Persuasiveness: 

My appeal to the organisation’s administration is to take note and execute the proposals without any fail. Failure of enacting or executing the proposals may lead to unwanted circumstances. 

fines should be imposed onto the workers who are not following the health and safety laws which are taught to them. The above reasons influence the government or local enforcement agencies to impose fines or punishment against the employer of the organisation.

The adhered costs for repairs, annual maintenance and training of workers for the ladders and scaffolding safety would be around INR 45,000/-

Observation  :  Confined Space Access and Egress.

In confined space there was extreme warmth in light of labourer laying movement sewer pipe line, there was no sufficient mechanical ventilation which prompts heat weariness, drying out, prompts spasms, heat pressure.

Legal Breaches of International Standard:

      Regulation 6 of the Confined Space Regulations 2001 states that:

  • A person shall not enter a confined space unless there is a suitable emergency arrangement have been made which are appropriate to the confined space.
  • critical entry dimensions extend over significant length or height, as in the case of sewers, culverts, small tunnel and shafts.
  • For example:

(a) It is recommended that people should not normally enter sewers of dimensions smaller than 0.9 m high by 0.6 m wide. Even this ‘minimum size ‘may in certain circumstances be too small for reliance on a safe system of work alone.

(b) Additional measures may be needed if there is a long distance between access points or the siting of the sewer invert. Structural alterations to improve access may be appropriate.

(c) In the case of a shaft containing a ladder or step irons, 900 mm clear space is recommended between the ladder/steps and the back of the shaft.

(d) The spacing of manholes on sewers or, in the case of large gas mains etc, the absence of such access over considerable lengths may affect both the degree of natural ventilation and the ease with which people can be rescued.

Recommendation:

The laborers who are occupied with bound space movement ought to be given Self containing breathing apparatus(“SCBA”) gadgets along with oxygen cylinders if the depth is more. To limit the danger of breathing in lethal gases like HYDROGEN SULPHIDE which is 1.8 times heavier than normal air and is found in excavated sites or confined spaces. Workers are to be taught well about the hazard and conceivable careful steps to be taken when required.

Management ought to give legitimate ventilation systems which involves heating ventilation and air conditioning systems and finding the natural air admission and remove the contaminated air by diluting the air. 

Relevant Respiratory Protective Equipment ought to be given. risk evaluation ought to be conveyed before beginning of work activity in the confined space. There ought to be affirmation that just experienced individual should complete the work. 

Persuasiveness:

If any fatalities occur there would be huge costs incurred to provide compensation to workers family, organization’s image would be spoiled in society, criminal proceedings on employer by enforcement agencies and government bodies,

Loss of staff, indirect costs to hire and train new employees.

The assessed cost for the above sited recommendations would be around INR 25,000/-.

Observation : Excavation Hazard

The trench which was dug out was posing exceptional dangers to the labourer’s, an unsteady trench or unearthing can collapse and comes about as damage or as a casualty to the labourer’s by suffocation or smashing a labourer or by continuous falling of soil or materials rigorously on to them.

The unearthing soundness of the dugout trench can be influenced by various number of components such as sort of the soil, its dampness, atmospheric conditions, the top weight of the soil close to the trench.

Legal Breaches of International Standards:

The construction Regulation 2007 imposes steps are to be taken into consideration to prevent workers, resources, vehicle, machineries dropping into the unearthing’s; Proper positioning of lighting with appropriate lux levels; 

  • R175 – safety and health in construction recommendation 1988 (no.175).

Article (34) Fitting supports and shielding to the dug-out excavations

C167 – safety and health in construction convention, 1988 (no.167)

Article (19) c167 –. Barricading to excavated area to prevent the workers and materials from falling in.

Recommendation:  

Structure of the excavation zone must be inspected and should be ensured that it is plane and smooth. Appropriate guidance and preparation knowledge ought to be given to the laborers. Keep individuals away from falling into unearthing’s by giving generous Barriers around the edges. Cautioning signs and electric lamps ought to be given. 

every day checking of the work place before commencing any work at the excavated site and legitimate guidance must be given. 

The estimated cost of providing the sheeting and shoring support systems and barriers, warning lights will be approximately INR 25,000/-.

It should be done if the deepness of the excavated area passes more than two metres.

Persuasiveness: 

If workers or materials are found to be falling in the excavated area it shows that management is least bothered about health and safety of its employees with production taking precedence over health and safety.

On humanitarian grounds it is un-acceptable to cause any harm or danger to the individual.

The organisation may face legal proceedings from government bodies and local enforcement agencies.

A lot of indirect costs would also be adhered if any incident or accident occurs

The evaluated expense of giving the sheeting and shoring and cautioning lights will be around INR 45,000/-.

Observation : Fire hazard.

It has been observed very close to the hot work activity of metal cutting; vessels containing highly inflammable liquid which was petrol was very close to the range of the hot work activity being carried out. Because of this there might be a chance of fire because of vapor display in the open region and the sparks were flying into the region where inflammable petrol fuel was stored. Contact of flying spark can ignite the source causing bombardment and rapid spread of fire.

Loss of property or human life can be incurred due to fire or explosion.

Legal Breaches of International Standards:

Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, SI 2005/1541.

The storage of flammable liquids in containers, HSG 51. Health and Safety Executive.

 – Adequate measures are to be engaged by the employer on identifying the symptoms associated start of fire and high standards of firefighting equipment’s must be provided.

If any inflammable or combustible substances are found near to where hot work activities are carried out then, the work must be halted temporarily and cleared of the inflammable substances and they are to be stored in safe area.

Recommendation:

Legitimate authorizations should be issued from the concerned group and hazard evaluation should be performed before beginning metal cutting or any type of hot work activity

A normal check by the team needs to happen and the laborers working under the metal cutting work activity region must be properly instructed and they should be prepared to deal with such circumstances. 

By providing the workers with fire-fighting compact gears such as fire dousing tools, fire resisting blankets, flame watcher, and furthermore framework to alarm others if there is an arise or occurrence of fire accident happens.

Persuasiveness: 

The suggestions are very particular and include insignificant expense. If any rapid spread of flame or bombardment occurs there would be legitimate activity from enforcement agencies and government bodies causing legal cases on to the employer which may result in huge fines or even imprisonment. 

It also causes lack of trust on management by workers which causes spoiling of industrial relations. Executing these suggestions on time would limit the danger of flame mishap and can ensure human lives and property harm.

The adhered costs would be around INR 50000/-

CONCLUSION:

At the work place environment, it should be observed about couple of good practices, for example, medical aid arrangement, crisis clearing system. The exercises on development were on going where, it was watched certain dimension of high hazard, progressively number of medium and few low dimension perils. There is no uncertainty that the present circumstance should be tended to as the organization is infringing upon a few security laws and guidelines. 

Manually taking care of moving of sharp edged un wieldy materials; higher levels of exposure to loud sounds by the erection of steel structure; 

Excavation zone with no edge securities, cautioning signs and improper lux levels used for lighting in the unloading bay; chance of electrocution to the worker from the overhead powerlines while working on MEWP; 

Prevent individuals from falling into unearthing’s by giving considerable Barriers around the edges. Cautioning signs and spotlights ought to be given with proper lux levels. There ought to be done every day checking and legitimate guide ought to be given. 

Inflammable petrol vessels ought to be expelled from the metal cutting zone and metal cutting ought to be ceased right away. Appropriate authorizations should be issued before beginning of metal cutting work activity and the group needs to guarantee that asked for zone is free from any flammable material and no hot work happens where inflammable substances are available or in close to the range of hot work activity. 

Isolating the power supply when working close near overhead power lines. Spot electrical protection hindrances between the specialist and the electric risk Provide non leading gear, for example, fiberglass stepping stools. 

As indicated by ILO C155-Occupational security and wellbeing traditions, the general obligation of wellbeing and wellbeing depends on businesses/association must give safe work environment, safe arrangement of work, gear and furthermore association likewise needs to guarantee that specialists must follow the Instructions and wellbeing methods to convey the work in safe way without making hazard for them and others.